Clinical Personality Patterns
Individuals characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, and apathy. They have a particular difficulty expressing pleasure or pain.
People that experience long-standing feelings of inadequacy and are extremely sensitive to what others think about them. They will seek to avoid painful experiences and any activities that involve socializing or interacting with others. They keep impulses and affects under control to avoid pain or anguish.
People that have a generally gloomy outlook on life, themselves, the past and the future. Their usual mood is dominated by dejection, gloominess, cheerlessness, joylessness, and unhappiness. Some of them are pessimistic and negativistic.
People that depend on others to meet their emotional and physical needs, with only a minority achieving normal levels of independence. They need for social approval and affection, and by their willingness to live in accord with the desires of others.
People characterized by a pattern of excessive attention-seeking emotions, usually beginning in early adulthood, including inappropriately seductive behavior and an excessive need for approval. They have a high need for attention, make loud and inappropriate appearances, exaggerate their behaviors and emotions, and crave stimulation.
People characterized by exaggerated feelings of self-importance. They are arrogant and have a sense of entitlement and demonstrate grandiosity in their beliefs and behavior.
People characterized by a lack of empathy or remorse and a pervasive pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others. There may be an impoverished moral sense or conscience and impulsive and aggressive behavior.
Individuals that display recurrent aggression and cruel behavior. They can also include the use of emotional cruelty, purposefully manipulating others through the use of fear, and a preoccupation with violence.
People characterized by a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, mental and interpersonal control and a need for power over one’s environment, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency. Persons affected with this disorder may find it hard to relax, always feeling that time is running out for their activities and that more effort is needed to achieve their goals.
People characterized by a habitual pattern of passive resistance to expected work requirements, opposition, stubbornness, and negativistic attitudes in response to requirements for normal performance levels expected of others. They are characterized by a pattern of negativistic attitudes and passive resistance to demands for adequate performance in social and occupational situations.
The person may often avoid or undermine pleasurable experiences, be drawn to situations or relationships in which he or she will suffer, and prevent others from helping him or her. They rejects opportunities for pleasure, or is reluctant to acknowledge enjoying himself or herself.
Severe Personality Pathology Scales
People characterized by a need for social isolation, anxiety in social situations, odd behavior and thinking, and often unconventional beliefs. People with this disorder feel extreme discomfort with maintaining close relationships with people, so they avoid forming them.
People characterized by a habitual pattern of marked impulsivity and instability of affects, interpersonal relationships and self image. Self-harm and suicidal behavior are common.
People characterized by paranoia and a pervasive, long-standing suspiciousness and generalized mistrust of others. They may be hypersensitive, easily feel slighted. They end to be guarded and suspicious and have quite constricted emotional lives.
Moderate Clinical Syndromes
Individuals afflicted with anxiety tend to describe themselves as ill at ease, anxious, lonely, and generally feel unwanted and isolated from others. They feel extreme shyness or anxiety in social situations, though they feel a strong desire for close relationships. They usually are hypersensitive, intensely wary and suspicious.
Patients with somatization disorder show high levels of worry, anxiety, and increased reactions in response to physical symptoms. These symptoms often include reports of pain, gastrointestinal distress, sexual problems, and pseudoneurological symptoms such as amnesia or breathing difficulties.
People characterized by periods of elevated mood and periods of depression. The elevated mood is significant and is known as mania or hypomania. During mania an individual feels or acts abnormally happy, energetic, or irritable. Also, they appear energetic, excitable, and may be highly productive. They often make poorly thought out decisions with little regard to the consequences.
People with Dysthymia has a number of typical characteristics: low energy and drive, low self-esteem, and a low capacity for pleasure in everyday life. In more severe cases of dysthymia, people may even withdraw from daily activities. They will usually find little pleasure in usual activities and pastimes.
Individuals that are addicted to alcohol either physically or mentally, and continue to use alcohol despite significant areas of dysfunction, evidence of physical dependence, and/or related hardship.
Substance Use disorder
People characterized by a pattern of continued pathological use of a medication, non-medically indicated drug or toxin, which results in repeated adverse social consequences related to drug use, such as failure to meet work, family, or school obligations, interpersonal conflicts, or legal problems.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
PTSD may develop after a person is exposed to one or more traumatic events, such as sexual assault, warfare, serious injury, or threats of imminent death. They feel symptoms such as disturbing recurring flashbacks, avoidance or numbing of memories of the event.
Severe Clinical Syndromes
Thought disorder refers to disorganized thinking as evidenced by disorganized speech. Specific thought disorders include derailment, poverty of speech, tangentiality, illogicality, perseveration, neologism, and thought blocking.
A person having a major depressive episode usually exhibits a very low mood, which pervades all aspects of life, and an inability to experience pleasure in activities that were formerly enjoyed. Depressed people may be preoccupied with, or ruminate over, thoughts and feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate guilt or regret, helplessness, hopelessness, and self-hatred. Other symptoms of depression include poor concentration and memory, insomnia, withdrawal from social situations and activities, reduced sex drive, and thoughts of death.
The patient expresses an idea or belief with unusual persistence or force. That idea appears to have an undue influence on the patient’s life, and the way of life is often altered to an inexplicable extent. The individual tends to be humorless and oversensitive, especially about the belief.